This page describes the Identifier element for RegistryObject and not one of the Identifier child elements found in CitationMetadata or RelatedInfo.

Meaning & purpose

An identifier is a sequence of characters or words that uniquely identify an object within a particular context or the domain of a specified authority. It may be globally unique if the specified authority has a global domain.
Identifiers that are useful for discovery, linking of metadata records, reuse, or to support the functions of the metadata provider, can be recorded, even if they are not unique or persistent.

For detailed information on persistent identifiers, see the Guides on Persistent Identifiers (awareness, working and expert levels), Digital Object Identifiers, and handles (Handle minting service).

Identifier attributes

Identifier Type

An Identifier Type is required. Preferably, specify a type from the Identifier Type vocabulary below. For types not in the vocabulary, use the Namespace in as the Identifier Type.

To request the addition of Identifier Types not in the current vocabulary, please contact

abnAustralian Business Number
arcAustralian Research Council identifier (Grant ID)
arkArchival Resource Key identifier administered by the University of California Digital Library
AU-ANL:PEAUNational Library of Australia party identifier (formerly nla:)
doiDigital Object Identifier Name
ean13International Article Number
eissnelectronic International Standard Serial Number
fundrefCrossRef Funder Registry of standardised funder names
gridGlobal Research Identifier Database
handleHANDLE System Identifier
igsnInternational Geo Sample Number
infouri'info' URI scheme administered by OCLC on behalf of NISO
isbnInternational Standard Book Number
isilInternational Standard Identifier for Libraries and Related Organizations
isniInternational Standard Name Identifier
issnInternational Standard Serial Number
istcInternational Standard Text Code
lissnlinking ISSN (ISSN-L)
localidentifer unique within a local context
mediaTypeThe Media Type (MIME type) of the information taken from the IANA assignment list
nhmrcNational Health and Medical Research Council grant identifier
orcidOpen Researcher and Contributor Identifier
pubMedIDUS Library of Medicine PubMed Unique Identifier
purlPersistent Uniform Resource Locator
raidResearch Activity Identifier
researcherIDThomson Reuters ResearcherID
scopusIDScopus author identifier
upcUniversal Product Code
uriUniform Resource Identifier
urnUniform Resource Name

Use in Research Data Australia

Identifiers are displayed within Research Data Australia as provided by the data provider, as clickable links (when possible), and prefixed with the identifier type.

Where two or more records (from the same or different data sources) share a common identifier, the records will be treated as describing the same thing. In Research Data Australia, these records are merged into a single search result and links to each of the merged records are displayed on the view page of each record

Best practice

For all records

For collections

For activities

For parties

XML encoding examples

<identifier type="doi"></identifier>
<identifier type="handle">hdl:102.100.100/15</identifier>
<identifier type="local">experiment/view/17</identifier>
Persistent identifier examples:
<identifier type="orcid"></identifier>
<identifier type="AU-ANL:PEAU"></identifier>
<identifier type="researcherID"></identifier>
<identifier type="scopusID"></identifier>
Other resolvable identifier example:
<identifier type="uri"></identifier>
Local identifier examples:
<identifier type="local">researcher:3950184</identifier>
<identifier type="uri"></identifier>
Australian Research Council identifier example:
<identifier type="arc"></identifier>

National Health and Medical Research Council identifier example:
<identifier type="nhmrc"></identifier>

Change history

DateChange history
April 2010Consultation draft
26 Oct 2010Changed guidelines for use of National Library of Australia identifiers
14 Oct 2011Removed 'txt' suggested identifier type (previously included in error) — use 'local' instead of this type
14 Oct 2011Added link to best practice for activity identifiers, clarified types to use for party identifiers (ThomsonReuters, Scopus, VIAF, ORCID), added link to Contributing to Trove page
29 Nov 2011Added link to information about URL displays for identifiers
13 Mar 2013Added further information about ORCID identfiers
26 Nov 2013Added nhmrc as a new identifier type
27 Mar 2014Added information to Use in Research Data Australia section
20 Jan 2017Removed examples (ThomsonReuters, Scopus, VIAF) of using authority names for types instead of the suggested vocabulary, where no resolvable URI exits - no longer relevant
13 Jul 2017Page reviewed and updated
5 Apr 2018Updated examples to reflect the addition of new identifier types "researcherID" and "scopusID"
10 Jan 2018Clarified the use of identifier types "nhmrc" and "arc" for grants
05 Mar 2020Changed 'http" to 'https' for the DOI link in the examples